The Role of Applied Epidemiology Methods in the Disaster Management Cycle

Disaster epidemiology (i.e., applied epidemiology in disaster settings) presents a source of reliable and actionable information for decision-makers and stakeholders in the disaster management cycle. However, epidemiological methods have yet to be routinely integrated into disaster response and fully communicated to response leaders.

Current assessment of risks of anthrax outbreaks in Ukraine

Anthrax is an acute especially dangerous infectious disease of animals and humans. Bacillus anthracis is a potential bioterrorism tool. In Ukraine, there are favorable natural conditions for the spread of anthrax. There are 13.5 thousand of constantly anthrax-troubled points. Anthrax epidemic situation in Ukraine could be characterized as unstable. Because of the continuing reform of Ukrainian human health entities, the State Sanitary Epidemiological Service (SSES) has lost its control functions and is remaining in an uncertain state, which increases possible risks.

Socio-environmental and measurement factors drive variation in influenza-like illness

Traditional infectious disease epidemiology is built on the foundation of high quality and high accuracy data on disease and behavior. Digital infectious disease epidemiology, on the other hand, uses existing digital traces, re-purposing them to identify patterns in health-related processes. Medical claims are an emerging digital data source in surveillance; they capture patient-level data across an entire population of healthcare seekers, and have the benefits of medical accuracy through physician diagnoses, and fine spatial and temporal resolution in near real-time.

Agent-based investigation of sexually transmitted infection

Every year nearly 12 million new cases of syphilis in the world are registered. Currently, in many countries of the world the stabilization or even reduction of the incidence of syphilis is marked, but this does not apply to Ukraine.

Assessing local risk factors of Beijing Hand-Foot- Mouth Disease in China

Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness and the drivers of HFMD incidence are still not clear [1]. In mainland China, continuing and increasing HFMD epidemics have been recorded since 2008, causing millions of infections and hundreds of deaths annually. In Beijing, 28,667 cases were reported in 2015 and the incidence was 133.28/100,000. The variations in Beijing HFMD epidemics over population, space, and time that have been revealed [2] emphasize the need for further research about risk factors of HFMD occurrence.

Analysis of Daily Enhanced Syndromic Surveillance in Hillsborough County, FL, 2015

The Florida Department of Health in Hillsborough County (FDOH- Hillsborough) conducts enhanced syndromic surveillance on a daily basis. The Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics in Florida (ESSENCE-FL) is the syndromic surveillance system used by epidemiologists within the Florida Department of Health (FDOH). During the time of this study, ESSENCE-FL receives data from 210 of emergency departments (ED) and 33 urgent care centers (UCC) throughout the state of Florida, including 12 EDs and 3 UCCs in Hillsborough County.

Using Syndromic Surveillance Alert Protocols for Epidemiologic Response in Georgia

DPH uses its State Electronic Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (SendSS) Syndromic Surveillance (SS) Module to collect, analyze and display results of emergency department patient chief complaint data from hospitals throughout Georgia.

Objective

Describe how the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) uses syndromic surveillance to initiate review by District Epidemiologists (DEs) to events that may warrant a public health response (1).

Lead Poisoning Surveillance: A Collaborative Effort between Epidemiology and WIC

There is no safe level of lead in the body, and elevated lead in children can lead to decreased Intelligence Quotients (IQ) and behavioral problems. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends lead testing of children with a positive risk assessment. Children who live in low socioeconomic areas may be at higher risk for lead exposure. As recent events have shown, having an elevated lead poisoning surveillance system can be critical to ensure that there is not a community-wide lead exposure.

Mass Gathering Surveillance: New ESSENCE Report and Collaboration Win Gold in OR

The 2016 U.S. Olympic Track and Field Team Trials were held July 1-10 in Eugene, OR. This mass gathering included over 1,000 athletes, 1,500 volunteers, and 175,000 spectators. The Oregon Public Health Division (PHD) and Lane County Public Health (LCPH) participated in pre-event planning and collaborated to produce a daily epidemiology report for the Incident Management Team (IMT) during the event. The state and county public health agencies had collaborated on surveillance for prior mass gatherings, including the 2012 Trials.

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This Knowledge Repository is made possible through the activities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Cooperative Agreement/Grant #1 NU500E000098-01, National Surveillance Program Community of Practice (NSSP-CoP): Strengthening Health Surveillance Capabilities Nationwide, which is in the interest of public health.